This a text version of my sermon from the first day of Passover, 5777 – enjoy the holiday!!
It is an often remarked upon oddity that Moses’ name does not appear anywhere in the traditional text of the Haggadah. I don’t know whether you realized it as you read the retelling of the exodus story last night. Pharaoh is mentioned, great talmudic sages like Rabbi Akiva are mentioned, even Aaron and Miriam, Moses’ brother and sister, are referred to in the text. But Moses, who worked harder than anyone to bring about the redemption of the Israelites, who bravely walked into Pharaoh’s throne room to demand that the Israelites be let go, who raised his staff and split the waters at the sea – Moses gets not one single mention. It is strange to say the least, and clearly intentional. The authors, the creators of the Haggadah, did not want Moses’ name to appear. (*see the note at the end of the text for a full explanation)
Over the years many reasons have been proposed as to why this is the case. The most common explanation is that the sages who wrote the text of the Haggadah wanted to emphasize the Divine role in the redemption from Egypt, not a human’s role – not even Moses’. It has also been said that Moses’ absence is yet another indication of his extreme sense of humility, and that he himself had a hand in making sure his name did not appear on the night of the seder.
But I would like to suggest another reason today. I think the Haggadah authors may have left Moses out because his presence in the text would have overshadowed – not God – but the other people in the Haggadah that we’ve come to know so well over the years. If Moses appeared on every page – and he would be on virtually every page – we wouldn’t pay much attention to the story of the Sages in B’nei Barak, or Rabban Gamliel’s description’s of the Pesah, Matzah, and Marror. I would even argue were Moses the focus of the Haggadah, even Elijah the prophet might get lost in the shuffle. So by eliminating Moses, the Haggadah democratizes the events of the Exodus, showing us that this was something that came about – and in a way continues to come about – through the efforts of many, not just one man. And as important as Moses was, we also needed all of the other contributors to make our way from slavery to freedom.
Moses’ absence on the seder nights also gives us an opportunity to search for other heroes in the Haggadah that we might not otherwise see. And this morning I would like to tell you about three heroes of mine who appear in the pages of the Haggadah, on the surface perhaps minor characters in the great drama of the seder, often overlooked of dismissed, but characters who play crucial roles in our understanding the meaning of Passover.
The first is Ben Zoma. Does that name sound familiar? Do you remember where he appears? Just after the story of the 5 Sages staying up all night and telling the Passover story, there is a short and also strange paragraph. It is about Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah, where he says – הרי אני כבן שבעים שנה – ‘I am like a man of 70 years.’ And he is struggling to understand a verse from the Torah – anyone remember what it is? It has to do with mentioning the Exodus from Egypt ALL the days of your life. And Rabbi Elazar – one of the great talmudic sages of all time – says that he never understood that verse until it was explained to him by a lesser sage named Ben Zoma. Anyone remember Ben Zoma’s answer? He says ALL the days of your life includes not only the days, when it is actually daylight outside, but also the nights. This is actually one of the reasons we say the third paragraph of the shema not only in the morning, but also at night, during evening services.
But what I love about Ben Zoma, the reason he is one of my three unheralded Haggadah heroes, is that he reminds us that Judaism is something that has to be practiced every day in order to be truly meaningful. It can’t just be about the seder night, it can’t just be abut Rosh Hashanah or Yom Kippur. Those are the big, dramatic moments. But the real beauty of Judaism is in the quiet moments, even the mundane moments, the ebb and flow of everyday life. It is easy to lose track of that, especially on a seder night when we put so much effort into telling the Passover story. Ben Zoma reminds us that the true power of Judaism is not found in a single night, but instead in כל ימי חייך – in ALL the days of your life. That is why he is my first Haggadah hero.
The next is a surprise choice, a character you probably would not expect to make my list – the Rasha. Who is that? Right, the wicked child (son), in the four sons section the one son who is considered to be excluded from the community. You remember his question – מה העבודה הזה לכם – what does this ritual mean to YOU. And we say since he said ‘you’ and not ‘us’ he implied that he wants nothing to do with Jewish life. The Rasha is the great villain of the Haggadah. Pharaoh is bad enough, but we’re used to dealing with outsiders who are after us. But to be rejected by someone in our own community is painful.
But without the Rasha we might experience the seder night as a perfect narrative, almost a fairy tale. The evil King is defeated in the person of Pharaoh. The people are released from their slavery. Those who subjected them – the Egyptians – are punished by the plagues. Without the Rasha it would all be a nice, neat package. And that is precisely why we need the Rasha in the Haggadah. We don’t live in a fairy tale world, we live in the real world, a world that badly needs fixing, a world that sometimes seems it is filled with wicked people. The Rasha reminds us that although we might step out of reality when we sit down at the seder table, when the seder ends, and Elijah leaves, and the last morsel of afikoman is eaten, we return to a world that badly needs fixing, and we have a role to play in that process.
My last Haggadah hero is the mystery man of the seder. You remember the passage ‘my father was a wandering Aramean?’ It is never quite clear who exactly that person is. Some commentators suggest it is Abraham, the first wandering Jew. Others think it is Jacob, who did in his life wander to Egypt. Some even say it is Laban, Jacob’s uncle. The bottom line is the text is ambiguous, and the figure remains unidentified.
I’ve always imagined that figure as my Zaydie, my dad’s father. He was a quiet, soft spoken, and largely reserved man, very mild mannered. I think he had to be that way given my Bubbe’s strong personality. But as mild mannered as he was, he was a wanderer. He made a choice when he was about 16 or 17 years old to undertake a journey, to leave the small village he lived in in eastern Europe, and to come here to the United States with the hopes of creating a new life. In that moment he joined in the age old Jewish story of diaspora, of the constant and restless search for freedom and dignity and tolerance. And I remember many a seder from my childhood when I watched my Zaydie, quietly sitting at a table surrounded by his children and grandchildren, the generations of his family, and I think in those moments he was reflecting – with gratitude – on how successful his search had been.
So there you have it. My three unheralded Haggadah heroes. Perhaps you have some of you own. If you don’t, you might spend a few moments at your seder tonight considering who they might be. Because each character in the text has a crucial role to play in the story of our freedom, in the journeys we undertake in our own lives.
- Moses’ name and the Haggadah text – It is true that some contemporary haggadot will use Moses’ name, either in commentary, or in a new version of the main text. Also, some traditional haggadot include the text of a midrash brought in the name of Rabbi Yosi HaGlili that includes Moses’ name. Here is a note from my friend Dr. Josh Kulp’s ‘Historical Haggadah’ regarding that midrash: “The section with the derash of Rabbi Yosi HaGlili is found in the Mekhilta de-Rabbi Yishmael (an early midrasnhic collection on Exodus). That this text is missing from many medieval Haggadot and from all early Israeli versions of the Haggadah indicates that this was a late edition to the Haggadah, and that the Rabbi Yosi HaGlili text (with its inclusion of Moses’ name) was certainly not originally composed as a liturgical piece to be recited at the seder.” All of this is to say that the original authors of the Haggadah text intended that Moses’s name not appear.